From the high-rise buildings to large or small outdoor yards, including Shopping malls, industrial buildings, warehouses, parking structures, tunnels, bridges everywhere, the most commonly used firefighting system is the standpipe system.  A Standpipe system is a type of rigid water piping, also known as a dedicated piping system, to which fire hoses can be connected. That means it is a way of conveying water through the fire hoses from one territory of the structure to another to extinguish fire whenever require.

The Standpipe & Hose system comprises of pipes, valves, hose outlets, and allied equipment, designed for trained building occupants or the fire department use. Standpipes are a critical tool that requires preplanning on the first responding apparatus to be used effectively. It can be installed vertically or horizontally.

NFPA 14, Standard for the Installation of Standpipe and Hose Systems, that covers Standpipe and Hose System design, installation, and maintenance instructions. But before applying in practice, the NFPA standard should be correlated with the adopted code of the jurisdiction.

Standpipe System Variations

In the Automatic Wet Standpipe systems, there is pressurized water all the time, designed to provide the need pressure and water when the hose valve is opened automatically. Not require firefighter to run this system. Furthermore, the system normally used in high rise buildings to pump sufficient water with adequate high pressure, where FDC would not reach an emergency. In freezing temperatures, it is not suitable to use.

In the Semi-Automatic Standpipe Systems, there is mildly pressurized air in the pipes that means water can be pressurized or not pressurized. The system conducts by preaction deluge valve; whenever firefighter connects hoses with system outlet, a signal sends to the alarm panel, then deluge valve activates as well as allow water to discharge. This system is suitable in freezing temperatures, but it requires an on-site fire pumper.

In the Automatic Dry Standpipe system, the air is filled with through the standpipe at a constant pressure. Water entered into the system when the hose valve opened, and the air escape from the pipes.

In the Manual Dry Standpipe system, there is no water or pressure through the pipes. This system is exclusively for the fire department use and requires a fire department pumper to supply the need pressure and water supply through a fire department connection. But, for the absence of water or pressurized air in the pipe, it is hard to detect any internal damage of pipes for corrosion or other harms.

In the Manual Wet Standpipe system, water remains in the pipe always, but the water is not pressurized to fight fire by just opening the hose valve. There must require a firefighter who has to use a fire pump to attain enough pressure. This system is less expensive, suitable for hot temperatures area. Besides, for the remaining water in the pipes, it is easy to detect any leakages before an emergency.

Standpipe System Classification

The above discussed five types of standpipe systems fall under three classification that varied based on the occupancy classification and building height.

Class I standpipes serve a 2.5-inch fire hose connection for fire department use. These connections must match the hose thread utilized by the fire department and are typically found in stairwells of buildings.

Class II standpipes serve a 1.5-inch fire hose connection and are typically found in cabinets. These are intended for trained occupant use and are spaced according to the hose length. The hose length and connection spacing is intended for all spaces of the building.

Class III standpipes have both connections of Class I and II.

Many times, these connections will include a 2.5-inch reducer

to a 1.5-inch connection.




Where Should the Standpipe System be Installed?

Well maintained EMACO fire standpipe systems are highly reliable and provide people protection as well as property protection. The system offers a quick and effective response in an emergency with a manual fire control facility that can mitigate fire at an early stage. The standpipe system should be placed in every highrise building along with boatyards, marinas.

As per NFPA 14, the Class III standpipe system should be installed if the floor height is more than 30feet from the fire department access and require a fire hose to run long distances. For non-sprinklered buildings (hight less than 65feet) travel distance of hose outlet is not more than 130 feet, and for sprinklered buildings, it is not more than 200 feet. More than these distance, fire-rated doors should be installed in halfways.

Besides, in non-sprinklered group A building and basement, the Class I system should be installed.

Moreover, if any structure size more than 1000 square feet, there should be a class III system available. Class I or Class III standpipe system must be available in the building heliport that should be extended to the roof level.


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